3D Laproscopic Monitors – A Helpful Tool in Minimally Invasive Surgeries

Also known as laparoscopy, Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) is a relatively new surgery comprising procedures performed with special miniaturized instruments and imaging reproduction systems. Today, technology has made MIS efficient, safe, and an applicable tool for pediatric surgeons with positives. In this article, we’ll discuss how laparoscopic monitors are a helpful tool in MIS.

Why 3D laparoscopy?
The introduction of 3D high definition systems has been advocated to overcome some of the problems related to standard MIS visual limitations. All procedures cannot be performed in minimally invasive methods. During MIS, surgeons perform multiple small surgical openings in skin is a few mm sixe. An endoscope is used to get Images or a clear view of the surgical area. The technique enables the surgeon to explore, remove, or repair inside the body.

Working of 3D systems
The 3D high-defintion (HD) system has two charge-coupled device image sensors. These sensors are located at the bback end of the laparoscope so that it could get images on the left and right. These two image-signals are processed by a video system to generate a high-resolution 3D image, which is displayed on a 3D monitor and viewed through 3D glasses to provide realistic images.The simultaneous manipulation of convergence and interaxial permits the placement of objects within the 3D space controlling the depth.

Benefits of 3D laproscopic monitors over MIS
3D systems merge computer graphics and real images into a single window fot the surgeon. It records images of the same object at varying angles separtely to enable different view of the object.

Features to be considered in 3D laparoscopic monitors

  • Magnification is important because it improves tissue visualization
  • 3D systems permit superior task efficiency and improved surgeon performance.
  • The overall time to complete the procedure is reduced along with the total error rate.

Advantages of 3D laproscopic monitors in MIS

  • It supports precise spatial orientation .
  • Itmproves hand-eye coordiantion effectively.
  • It helps to achieve precise results.
  • It gives detailed information accurately .
  • It leads in reduction of time and surgeon fatigue .

Drawbacks associated with 3D laproscopic monitors

  • It costs very high.
  • Pre-operative planning and postoperative evaluation is cumbersome .
  • pathologies of different origin (congenital and acquired) affecting organs in and around.

Applications of 3D laproscopic monitors

  • Used in laparoscopic surgeries.
  • For effective microsurgeries.
  • In use with robotic surgery.
  • Live broadcast surgery in 3D via the Internet.
  • Detection of shapes, orientations and positions of organs improving anatomical understanding.

Today, advancement in instruments has led to more comfortable giving quicker, more accurate, and precise results improving the picture quality and resolution, image separation, etc. In the long run, however, 3D laproscopic systems are expected to be more widely used.
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Advantages and Disadvantages of Purchasing Rebuilt Used Engines

It is a good idea to buy a used engine for the vehicle, for it brings advantages. Rebuilt or re-manufactured engines are made of the parts of the old engines, enriched in quality, to make them good enough as the new car engines. But, these engines may also bring few disadvantages, as they have already been used. So, would you like to know the pros and cons of the rebuilt used engines? Then, go through the below information.

Advantages of rebuilt used engines
Replacement car parts reviewsCost effective
Rebuilt used engines save lot of your money spent on the worn out or new engines. If your engine is damaged, better replace it with the rebuilt engine; because, repairing the engine or buying the new engine may simply increase your investment bringing no benefit to you. Repaired parts may wear off any time. So, you can’t keep trust on those engines. So, it is advisable to get the rebuilt or rebuilt the used engine for your vehicle.

Though rebuilt engines are made of used parts, they generally meet the original standards as of the new engine. But, if they are used, we can’t predict the reliability of the engine as that of a new rebuilt engine. This can be analyzed with the help of a few mechanical checks.

Saves energy and resources
Rebuilt engines doesn’t allow to consume the energy and resources used for manufacturing them, as they are made of already used parts. Purchasing rebuilt used engines is eco-friendly decision as you are not imposing burden of manufacturing the new engines.
Thus, overall, the rebuilt engines help the vehicle to extend its life time with less cost.

Disadvantages of rebuilt used engines
Along with the advantages, rebuilt engines can also bring few disadvantages, once they are used. Some of them are:

Wear and tear of the engine
If you purchase the rebuilt used engine, there is a chance that your vehicle may meet with an accident and thereby damage the engine parts. But, you can identify this before you purchase the engine, with the help of a mechanical inspection.

Less or no warranty
Sometimes, the rebuilt used engines may have less warranty or no warranty, if it is used or as if they are re-manufactured or rebuilt.

These are the pros and cons of rebuilt used engines. So, if you are going to purchase the rebuilt used engines, you must be aware of these factors, to make sure that you get a good rebuilt used engine for your vehicle in less amount.
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Best Cities to Work in Texas

Texas’s diversified opportunities in employment and low cost of living with various cities to work makes it an ideal choice for people looking forward for jobs. In this article, a brief description about various cities to work present in Texas have been mentioned.

List of top cities in Texas to work and their significance

  • League City: It is the largest city in Galveston county, and is known for its beautiful marina’s offering access to different boating activities very easily.
    • Johnson space center located in Houston provides with jobs in aerospace and other industries like medicine, energy and tourism.
  • Allen: It is a great city for job seekers with strong increase in population and lower unemployment rate.
    • Allen independent school district is one of the biggest employers for educated workers.
    • Other major industries present in the city includes medicine, graphic design and government work.
    • Being 12 miles away from Dallas it makes a popular home for commuters.
  • Sugar Land: Despite its name it is called as “fittest city in Texas” with the highest median income among top ten at $50,598.
    • It has diverse economy with with industries like engineering software, energy and manufacturing with an unemployment rate of 4.7%.
  • McKinney: It is noted as the fastest growing city by the census board with large rise in population.
    • It has low unemployment rate of 5.8% and is a center for medical, technology and manufacturing companies.
    • McKinney independent school district also is a large employer.
  • Grand Prairie: It is a city with aviation and defense workers being the home to north American aviation facilities and American airlines with a low unemployment rate of 6%.
  • Midland: The economy of midland is mostly driven by the energy and oil industry.
    • A rapid population growth occurred and attract workers in to various industries like medicine, education and energy.
    • Its unemployment rate is around 3%.
  • Edinburg: With highest population growth and presence of major industries which includes education, manufacturing, finance, medicine and energy makes it among best cities in Texas.
    • Its unemployment was up to 6.9%.
  • Irving: It is one of the major economic centers with major industries getting located in the area. Companies like Archon group, Exxon Mobil, Commercial metal company and BlackBerry are headquartered in this city.
    • Unemployment rate was 5.6% with Verizon, Nokia and Citigroup being the major corporations.
  • Bryan: This city is popular for businesses in processing, retail and manufacturing.
    • The major industries present in Bryan include healthcare, government and education with the Bryan independent school district, the university of Texas and the city of Bryan being the major employers.
    • The unemployment rate stands at 5.1%.
  • Plano: It is one of the most populous cities in Texas, and is rated as one of the greatest places to reside in.
    • It is the home to industries like technology, finance, software and medicine.
    • Major employers include capital one, medical center of Plano and American home loans with the unemployment rate of 5.5%.

The above list gives information regarding the various cities present in Texas with the major employers located within. The cities are ranked best due to reasons pertaining to the standard of living and the employment opportunities present.
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Basics of Email Marketing

Email marketing is a form of direct marketing in which a promoter or advertising firm does marketing by directly approaching a potential customer through emails. This method of online marketing engages the promoter and customer directly. Hence exact feedback of the customer can be gathered and sales can be closed if the customer is interested. Email marketing helps in attending to a already existing customer and targeting new products and sales to him. This helps in building brand recognition, trust and long term association with a customer. The only tricky thing that exists with this product is that the promoter has to arrange for the email addresses of the clients and prospective customers. This can be done by filling the registration forms, asking for subscribing to newsletters and arranging for email ids through surveys.

Ad serverTypes of email marketing
Engaging directly with the customers in a private space is the major advantage of this approach. There are different ways through which marketing with the help of emails can be done.

  • Newsletters opting: This is initiated when a user logs on to some website in search of some information or out of interest. The website asks the user for his email address. Once his email address gets profiled, weekly or monthly newsletters are dispatched to the user’s mail promoting new products and their features. In this way, the product directly targets the potential customer who is actually interested in the product and not imposing it on some random customer.
  • Direct emails: Direct emails are aimed at sole purpose of marketing the product. The company has to arrange for email ids of different prospective customers for this purpose. Usually, the company arranges for the email ids through some surveys, filling up of registration forms, collecting email ids from some earlier surveys or contacting some other agencies for email ids. The promotional product and related product is directly mailed to the user without any assumptions and expectations.
  • Ad serving platformsTransactional emails: This type of promotional approach is generally employed with people who have already went into some sale or purchase agreement with the brand. The company keeps in constant touch with the customer through email. Initially it is just about acknowledging the purchase and sending the receipts and informing about the sales and service related issues. Afterward, company engages in targeting new products to the customer. It is in the favor of the company as a customer generally favors to have the product with same brand in home if the earlier one is working fine. This helps in building confidence in the customer and leads to long term association.

Email marketing low cost, interactive and attracting method of online advertising. It communicates customers directly and is a very effective online marketing method.
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New Car Launches in Toyota Motors 2014

Toyota is known for their vehicles that are some of the most modern with safety features that could enhance your driving. In this article, we have listed some of new cars (with specifications and their performance features) that ford is going to launch this year.

Some of the newly launching/launched cars by Toyota we are discussing in this article are:

  • Toyota Avalon
  • Toyota Camry
  • Toyota Corolla

Toyota Avalon XLE
Toyota Avalon is one of the mid-size cars launched by Toyota. Here are the specifications and performance feature of Toyota Avalon.

Specifications of Toyota Avalon XLE 2014

Gas Mileage 22 mpg City/32 mpg Hwy
Engine Regular Unleaded V-6, 3.5 L
EPA Class Mid-size Cars
Base curb weight(KG) Base curb weight(KG)
Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
Passenger Capacity 5
Passenger Doors 4
Body Style 4dr Car
Fuel Capacity 77.35Litres (17 Gallons)
Transmission System Transmission: 6-Speed ECT-i Automatic (U 660E)
Steering Type Rack and pinion

Features of Toyota Avalon XLE 2014

  • Adaptive Cruise Control system
  • Pre-collision system
  • Automatic high beams system
  • Smart key system
  • Backup camera
  • Universal garage-door opener
  • Blind Spot monitor with Rear Cross Traffic Alert
  • Steering-wheel paddle-shifters (V-6 model only)
  • Three-zone automatic climate control system
  • A rear sunshade, HID headlamps and LED daytime running lights
  • Touch-screen display audio system
  • Entune App Suite for allowing you to run a series of apps on the touch screen, using the data connection through smart phone
  • Safety Features
  • Electronic stability control System
  • Anti-lock brakes with brake assist system
  • Smart stop brake-override system
  • Ten airbags are included in all Avalon models. Driver and front passenger knee bags and rear outboard seat-mounted bags are included in that safety set.
  • Performance of Toyota Avalon XLE 2014
  • Toyota Avalon XLE 2014 has 3.5-liter V-6 Engine, equivalent to 268 horsepower
  • Fuel efficiency of 21 mpg city, 31 mpg highway.
  • The combine rating of this car is 25 mpg.
  • It allows Zero to 60 mph just in 6.7 seconds.

Toyota Camry
Toyota Camry is the one of the Mid-size cars launched by Toyota motors. Toyota Camry ranges from economical and basic to high-tech luxurious.

Specifications of Toyota Camry 2014

Gas Mileage 25 mpg City/35 mpg Hwy
Engine Gas I4, 2.5L
EPA Class Mid-size Cars
Base curb weight(KG) 1444.7
Driving Type Front Wheel Drive
Passenger Capacity 5
Passenger Doors 4
Body Style 4dr Car
Fuel capacity 77.35Litres (17 Gallons)
Transmission System 6-Speed Automatic
Steering Type Rack and pinion

Features of Toyota Camry 2014

  • Three-spoke leather-trimmed steering wheel
  • Transmission system along with steering-wheel paddle shifters.
  • Smart Key system, and Optitron meters.
    • Safety Features
  • Ten standard airbags, including new front passenger, knee bags and rear side airbags for outboard passengers.
  • A rear-view camera system and an optional blind-spot monitoring system is paired with Rear Cross Traffic Alert.
  • Performance of Toyota Camry 2014
  • Engine size: 2.5-lite, 4-cylinder
  • Fuel efficiency is 25 mpg (city) and 35 mpg (highway).
  • The combined rating of this car is 28 mpg.

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Laser Root Canal Therapy with Advanced Techniques

Now days traditional methods of treatments are almost replaced in many countries because of the fast growth in the technology. It has many applications in different fields industries to medicine. Therefore, the dentistry also came up with new techniques in all aspects. This has given a new path to the dental field. Laser root canal therapy is one among them.

Laser Root Canal Therapy:
People with fear of taking the traditional root canal treatment, which are painful. For this kind of people, this laser root canal therapy brings smile in their faces because the traditional method is too painful. Mainly the treatment is carried out to remove damaged part of the pulp, which causes severe pain.

This is a very simple procedure. Laser root canal therapy uses a parallel beam of light, which cleans the root canals. It melts debris that consists of bacteria and infection, which is called as the “Smear layer” of the teeth root. This take very less time to operate when compared to the conventional methods.

Waterlase laser therapy:
Waterlase dental laser is the latest laser root canal therapy. This therapy uses high-pressure water and the laser to remove the tissues that are damaged and which are infectious. Without any drilling and hand files the waterlase system here produces pressure and heat so that the damaged part is removed. With this treatment the laser goes deep in to the root of the teeth and removes all the bacteria and debris, which is not clearly done with the traditional approach. The equipment used here like waterlase and sedation dentistry is the latest techniques and treatments.

Benefits of laser root canal therapy:

  • Reduces the side effects of the treatment.
  • With this technique the blood coming out of the teeth is reduced.
  • This treatment is given with minimum amount of anesthesia or no anesthesia.
  • Post-operative methods are eliminated in this laser treatment.
  • Comfortable during the treatment.
  • Less pain during the therapy.
  • Done in very less time compared to traditional method.
  • The healing is faster with laser root canal therapy.
  • Waterlase avoids the damage that can happen to the healthy portion of the teeth.
  • This is a more natural way of treatment.

Thus with laser therapy for your root canal keeps your teeth damage free and painless. If you want a comfortable treatment you can go with this laser root canal therapy or treatment.
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Types and Working of an Engine Lubrication system

Engine lubrication systems can be classified according to the nature of their sumps. A sump is an oil pan that is placed at the base of an engine that contains the lubricating oil. Since there are two types of sumps, dry sumps and wet sumps, engine lubrication systems are also classified into wet sump lubricating system and dry sump lubricating system.


  • The design if a wet sump is simple. There is no need of a separate container and lines to store and carry the lubricating oil around. This relieves a lot of space and weight in the automobile.
  • The cost is cheaper than the dry sump system, because it has comparatively less number of parts.
  • Easy to setup and practical to use.

Wet sump systems can be classified into three types

Fuel pump repair1) The splash system
The splash system is out of use in automobiles today and is used only in miniature engines like lawn movers and in outboard marine operations. In the splash lubrication system, lubrication oil is stored in the sump below the crank case and is splashed upwards for lubrication. When the oil is splashed up, it mixes with air and becomes a fine mist and it lubricates several parts of the engine like the piston, cylinder walls, piston heads etc. To make the splash happen, a dipper is connected to the connecting rod bearing caps. When the crankshaft rotates, the dipper dips in the sump and splashes the oil upwards.

2) The splash and pressure system

  • In the splash and pressure system some parts of the engine are lubricated by the splash and pressure system, while some parts are lubricated by a pump through pressure.

The oil from the pump first enters the galleries of the engine. From there, it flows to the crankshaft and camshaft bearings. The main bearings have oil-feed grooves. These send the oil into drilled passages in the crankshaft. The oil thus flows through these passages to the piston pin bearings. This is the process by which a part of the engine is lubricated by pressure from a pump.

The cylinder walls are lubricated by oil that is splashed up from below. Some of the engines also use troughs under the connecting rods that are supplied by small nozzles while deliver oil under pressure from the pump. The oil stream delivered by the nozzles increase in force when the speed of the automobile increases. This causes a much heavier splash and the necessary parts are lubricated well.
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Did You Know How a Torsen Differential Works?

When a vehicle turns round a corner, barring the driven wheels, the others (powered) will face drag on the surface, during a turn. In order to eliminate this, a group of gears called differential is used. The differential transfers torque from the engine to the wheels and allows them to spin at different speeds. The basic form of such a mechanism is called the open differential. But the open differential has a crucial limitation.

Note that in the absence of differentials, the axles will be worn out soon. When a vehicle is taking a turn, all four tires spin at different speeds because the distance they travel during a turn is different. There is unequal supply of torque to both the wheels, tire slippage happens.

The limited slip differential includes a clutch, which overpowers one wheel receiving extra power, but gets overpowered in turns. Then, there is the differential lock, which either engages or disengages the right and left wheels and one either has to manually do that or it is automatic.

But all these are corrective mechanisms laid over the basic principle of the open differential. But in 1958, a design of a differential, that could enable differential wheel spin, but still avoid lowered torque and slip was invented. It was called ‘torsen’ and it comes from the phrase ‘torque sensing’. Unlike the other differentials which bring about traction control and different wheel spin by having extra mechanisms in place, a torsen differential does this by means of its own design.

The principle of worm gears
The basic principle behind worm gears and worm wheels is that worm gears can turn worm wheels but not vice-versa. This principle is what is effectively exploited in the design of a torsen differential.

How it works
The ring gear transfers torque to both the wheels using a set of worm gears and worm wheels. There are two to three pairs of worm wheels and they lock on to the worm gear which also is paired. The right worm gear connects to the right axle while the left worm gear connects to the left axle.

Since the worm wheels by principle cannot turn the worm gear, they lock on to the worm gear and when the ring gear rotates, turn along with the worm gears. And when the vehicle is taking a turn, one of the wheels slow down down and the other rotates with a higher speed. This difference in speeds is fed back to the worm gears, and since they have the ability to turn the worm wheels, they turn the right and left wheels of each pair at differing speeds.

Rotational balance is thus accomplished, and when the turn is complete, the worm gears would stop turning the worm wheels and so the wheels lock back once again.

In conditions like snow and wet weather, since the worm wheels don’t turn the worm gears, the torque received from the ring gear is transferred to the wheels with no difference. Even if one of the wheels is in a slippery surface, there is no way it would attract more power, defy torque and cause slippage.
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The Need for Transmission System in Cars

In a car, the engine produces the necessary power that is needed for it to move. But it is important to know how this generated power is transferred to the wheels and get them to rotate. There is system in most of the automobiles which is meant for this purpose. A transmission system in a car generally does two tasks.

a) Transfer power from the engine to the wheels
b) manage the gear ratio between the engine and the drive wheels.

The first task is achieved mechanically with the help of gear wheels. But the job of the transmission system does not stop there. The same system should also be used to perform a lot of other functions for optimal performance of the vehicle. This article focuses on the need for the transmission system in a vehicle.

The need for a transmission system in a vehicle arises due to the characteristics of an internal combustion engine. There are two terms that need to be understood here regarding an internal combustion engine. a)Torque b)Power. Torque is the amount of force that is acting upon the rotating shaft which in turn make the wheels rotate. Power is the calculation of the amount of work done , in a specified amount of time. Which in this case, are the rotations of the rotating shaft, other wise called rpm(rotations per minute).

Now, when a vehicle moves, it does not move in an uniform speed. It starts from zero velocity, attains momentum, increases further in speed, then comes down if the vehicle slows down etc., and all of this according to the requirements faced by the movement. So, it becomes important that the rotations achieved by the axle of the vehicle in a minute matches the power generated by the engine (which is also rpm). Imagine a condition where the engine is connected directly to the axle without no transmission mechanism. There are two possibilities.

a) Since the axle is slender, a lot of torque would be required to rotate it, and the engine should be able to deliver it from the beginning. If it does not, there will be too much pressure on the engine to deliver and can sometimes even result in failure.

b) And if the engine is able to deliver, it becomes mandatory that the system that connects the engine to the axle is strong enough to withstand the mechanical pressure. Even if the two conditions are satisfied, if the speed of rotation changes, the calculations change and become unmanageable. Thus it becomes necessary that it is managed by a proper system.

The transmission system maintains an optimality in transferring the power. That is, it relays the power to the axle more optimally, so that the force exerted on the axle is not more or less than required. Simply put, for a certain amount of power generated by the engine, the transmission mechanism ensures there is maximum usage. For example, when the vehicle starts to move, more torque is needed than power, because movement is of priority. As the vehicle attains greater speeds, this condition gradually changes and more power would be of priority than torque. Any engine has a red line – it’s the maximum rpm value in which the engine can perform. The transmission system ensures that the engine stays below the red line and near the rpm band of its best performance.
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Latest Safety Features in Cars

You may always hear that automobile industry is advancing their safety devices and features, but what exactly they are and how will these features help in protecting you and other passengers? In this article, we will discuss about the latest safety features that are found in new cars. Read the rest of this entry »


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